What-are-the-Most-Common-Causes-of-a-Hydraulic-Pump-Failure Pro Couplings


What are the Most Common Causes of a Hydraulic Pump Failure?

Contamination in the Pump

The internals of a hydraulic pump are designed to work with fluid that meets exacting specifications. When hydraulic fluid is contaminated it can lead to issues developing in the pump, force the pump to work harder, and cause the pump to work erratically. One common culprit for contamination is water, and it can quickly lead to increased corrosion, changes in viscosity that lead to inefficiencies, and the inability to properly regulate heat in the pump.

Other debris, either introduced from outside or from the degradation of internal elements, can also lead to issues in the pump and signal failing seals or other parts.

Failing Seals

A hydraulic pump is often containing a high level of pressure and as this pressure exerts force on seals in the pump, the seals can begin to leak or fail. Even minor leaks in seals can lead to loss of fluid and create issues in the system. Leaks can be both external and internal. For an internal leak, fluid will move from one part of the pump to another in unintended ways and force inefficiencies into the pump as it has to work harder to compensate.

Overpressure and Overloading

While many hydraulic pumps are built to stand up to tough and continuous working conditions, every hydraulic pump is designed with an upper limit. Every time a hydraulic pump is subjected to overpressuring and overloading beyond what the manufacturer has specified, the pump is more prone to damage. 

Air in Pump and in Fluid

All hydraulic oil has a defined amount of air dissolved in it, but increases to this amount can lead to inefficiencies in the pump and force the pump to work harder or erratically. An increase in air can also happen inside the pump and create similar problems. Even though the pump and hydraulic system have mechanisms in place to regulate air in the system, if excess air is introduced the system should be returned to a balanced system before prolonged use of the pump.

Low Oil, Incorrect Oil, or Too Much Oil

The hydraulic system on a construction equipment machine is designed to work within defined parameters. Operating a machine with too little oil or too much oil for even the briefest amount of time can cause the pump to overwork, lead to increases in working temperatures, or create conditions for non-uniform movement. The exact type of oil used — matched to the machine and the working environment — can also impact how the hydraulic pump operates.

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